Tag Archives: Uni

A reflection of the last decade

While I respect the mindset of manifesting and believing that whatever is meant to happen, will happen; I ground myself on the idea that you’re the one in control of your life – not your parents, not your friends, not the universe. Don’t get me wrong, they all have a significant role to play and sometimes I find myself thinking “wow, the world really wanted that to happen to me today” but for the most part, I have what I have and I get what I want because I work hard for it – in fact, I earned it. 🙌

Call it sentimental but with two units left of my undergraduate degree, I’m sure you can understand the reflection. We’re in for a long one here so feel free to jump out whenever you like but today, I’m reminiscing on the last decade of my life.

Over the last two or so years; I’ve received exceptionally positive feedback on my assignments, I’ve been a recipient of the Dean’s Excellence Award for two consecutive semesters, I’ve been recommended for Honours twice, I’ve recently been informed that I was the top student in one of my units and I had the Internships Convenor for the Faculty of Arts and Design ask my permission to use my website for future students. This. Exact. Website. 😮

Sadly, I wasn’t always like this. I wasn’t always an academic achiever. In fact, I never strived for it but I was never the kid who thought being smart was lame. To be quite honest, I’m not all that smart – I simply know what I know and I put in the hard yards to know it. There isn’t much else to it.

For my story to make sense, I have to address a number of things:

  1. My time at the University of Canberra
  2. The environment I was in
  3. The choices I made
  4. The emotional support (or lack thereof)
  5. My best friend
  6. …and lastly, me

MY time at UC

My first semester at the University of Canberra was August 2013 (feels like a lifetime ago), where I enrolled in a double undergraduate degree of a Bachelor of Marketing Management and a Bachelor of Communication in Advertising. Sounds fancy, right?

I enjoyed all the marketing classes but loathed anything and everything else. I found it hard to motivate myself in economics, accounting… don’t even get me started on statistics and business law. I’ll be completely honest with you: I failed three units. Two of which, I failed twice… meaning that I failed five times. Talk about a waste of money. 👎

When it came to my advertising degree, I did really well in my first class but I didn’t enjoy it. I didn’t like any of them because I felt as if I wasn’t creative enough. I didn’t fail any units under this course but I withdrew from two because, again, I didn’t like them… so, I decided to change degrees. I kept Marketing Management but changed into Communication in Public Relations and this was when I saw a significant change in my academic studies. The punch line? I now work in advertising. So technically, I didn’t really need to make the change but how was I supposed to know how things would work out?

The environment I was in

Like I said, you’re the one with full control of your life but sometimes, there are factors that hold influence over your decisions.

I’ve got a lot of great memories from my childhood but I’d be lying to you if I said it was full of nothing but rainbows and lollipops – because it wasn’t. I actually rarely talk about my childhood. I didn’t learn how to speak my mind or have the self-confidence that I have now until my 20s. I used to cry during class presentations and job interviews. I was always afraid to ask questions or ask for help. Yeah, I was that kid. 🤦🏻‍♀️

When it came to where I worked, I always had pride and took ownership of the bar where I was working. Usually, I’d stay working there for a while because I loved it but sometimes, the hospitality industry gets you. The hard work, the late nights and the kind of people you meet (not always the good kind)… sometimes it gets the better of you. Once I became a full-time manager, I was working all the time. I reduced my study load and partied a lot. There were times where I’d finish work at midnight, stay out to party, get a few hours sleep, then wake up to do it all over again. Some might say that it was just my youth, and I’d agree with them to a certain degree, but I literally let uni slip through the cracks. Can you see where I failed all those units now?

There’s no way that this all happened because of my childhood or where I worked, not at all. I failed because I allowed myself to believe that those environments impacted me in the way it did rather than value those learning experiences. I’m a tougher person because of it but sadly, my education took the fall.

The choices I made

If you’ve known me for a long time, even if we aren’t really friends now, you’d know a lot about the choices that I made back in the day. Some were highly questionable, some were logical. For instance, why did I go full-time when I was already working full-time hours on casual pay? Not to mention my decision to change degrees when I’m actually working in advertising now, which resulted in studying a little bit longer than I should be.

My first breakup turned out to be a doozy. I remember saying “if you change your mind, let me know”. Vanessa, please. I laugh at myself when I catch myself thinking of that as I don’t even understand why I’d say that – not that I think about that moment often. My friends now would literally laugh at me knowing that I’ve said that. I could never understand those on-again-off-again couples, it’s not really my thing. The events after this are just iconic. From the people I met to the people I developed feelings for, even the situations I found myself in, you’d think I was in some kind of reality TV series. 😅

Things do work out in the end though. This is where all that “if it’s meant to be, it’ll be” business comes in but I certainly don’t regret the choices I’ve made because like I’ve said, it wouldn’t have led me to this point.

The emotional support (or lack thereof)

I’m not going to dive deep into the types of support systems that I’ve had because my current one is nothing short of amazing. This comes in all shapes and sizes – even from a guy I used to casually see once upon a time – and I’m forever grateful for the people I have in my inner circle now.

I will say this though: sometimes, it’s quite disheartening to find no comfort from those who should be providing that (unconditionally, might I add). I don’t know why I surprise myself each time I experience this because it’s usually from the same person or the same type of people. I’ve literally been called “an uneducated and close-minded young person” when really, I’m at the top of my class. What would they know, right? I personally find it sad that some people are stuck in this mindset that our younger generations aren’t good for anything – especially when they don’t know anything about their capability (..just like myself).

My best friend

Speaking of my inner circle, I owe a lot to my best friend. She doesn’t provide me with the typical form of support that a girl would most likely get from her bestie.

She supported me in two ways. First, by giving me all the freedom that I needed at the time. When we were younger, we leant on each other a lot. We were literally so inseparable that we’d often find ourselves in trios of friendships or she’d constantly be the third-wheel to the boy that I was seeing at the time. She was always around, looking over me and watching my every move (without being creepy). She allowed me to make the choices and mistakes that I made but always voiced when I made said mistakes. Plus, I was a lot more stubborn back then so kudos to her for always being by my side.

For me, showing up is a big deal. Saying “good job” is a big deal. Every little win contributes to a major win and she’s done exactly that. I won’t deny that there have been moments in our friendship when we’ve thought “why is or isn’t she doing this?” with each other but at the end of the day, I know she’s always going to be there for me. Her story is also incredible and I’m proud of the woman she’s become. She’s patient, loving and sweet – the complete opposite to me. But she’s it.

..and lastly, me

At the end of everyday, it all comes down to you. In this case: me.

I wasn’t always in the frame of mind that I’m in now. I lacked self-confidence, which resulted in an absence of drive. Back then, I was driven to be a social butterfly and party and do my job. It was often because of the position I’d put myself in or the people I’d surround myself with but it was all me – I made those choices.

And now? I choose me. I choose my education, my career, my happiness. I choose to not think of myself as dumb (…although I do have my moments! 😂). I choose to value what I can offer to people and I know that it’s because of me that I choose to be this way.


To those who continue to support me and shower me with love, I appreciate you. And to those who have called me “dumb” or aren’t aware of how good I am – are you living under a rock? At least I know I won’t dwell on any regrets in my life. It’s pretty easy to reflect on what’s come and gone when I’m so close to finishing uni but it’s certainly refreshing to see how far I’ve come. ✨

Ivy Social’s first intern

If you were to ask the people in my life about my self-confidence and self-esteem, I have a feeling that most, if not all, would say that mine are pretty high (..often too high 😂).

To be honest, I’m quite sure of myself and am very confident in what I already know and what I’m comfortable with. For example, I know that I’ve got great time management and can mix a nicely-frothed Espresso Martini at my bar job. But… when UC updated course requirements and incorporated two internships in my double degree – I felt incredibly nervous within seconds.

Why, you ask?

Believe it or not: it’s because I have zero confidence in my interview skills and I know that they’re a first impression. Seriously.

When the time came, I searched through UC’s CareerHub which listed so many possible internships. I wasn’t sure what I was really looking for but I always had an interest in digital marketing (without even knowing it) and got good grades in my communications units.

And then, I stumbled across Ivy Social. Cute name, right? 😍

I looked more into them: “a boutique social media consultancy in Canberra”. I searched for the contact person and she’s someone I went to school with, she was actually in the year above me (classic Canberra). And so, I sent her an email with my expression of interest and resume.

Knowing that I had to do an interview was nerve-racking, but it definitely helped that I sort of knew my potential first internship supervisor. It didn’t feel like such a formal interview either, it felt more like a conversation which flowed nicely. Then and there, we discussed start dates and I was super excited (..internally, I was doing a self-high-five as I hadn’t applied anywhere else 🙏).

Now when it came to the actual internship, it was kinda funny in that they weren’t sure of how to go about training me – I was the first official intern for Ivy Social.

Let me tell you: they absolutely killed it. I learned so much about the ins and outs of social media including the algorithm, paid advertising, writing content for different clients across a number of industries – I’m still learning more about all of these things.

What I loved the most was that in one moment, I could step into the minds of a prestigious car brand, then the solar industry in the next. I never realised how much I’d fall in love with creative writing – all thanks to this opportunity.

The best thing about this internship?

It landed me the role of Social Media Content Coordinator at Ivy Social months later. 🌿

Safe to say that I’ve built – and will continue to build – my self-confidence in a new environment.

VP ✨

I’m back!

Well… this blog certainly went to rest once I completed that Digital Marketing unit, didn’t it?! Whoops.

Because of the momentum I had built from doing my internship and regularly blogging for uni, I had every single intention to continue – even if it was just once a month.

But then, you know, life happened.

In my defence, big and exciting life things happened. All the good things, really.

*drumroll*

I landed two marketing jobs! 🎉

I’ll save these roles for future blog posts but I just wanted to let you all know that your girl is back in action.

Yes.. I have another unit which requires this kind of assessment however, I really, really do want to get into the swing of blog writing. So, I’m publicly writing this to keep myself accountable. Wish me luck.

Throughout Semester 1, 2020, you can expect to see my academic and professional portfolio, as well as read about my own experiences (..maybe you’ll get to read about a funny story or two!). 🙌

In short: I’m back and I’m thrilled.

VP. ✨

Three tips to kick-start an online business

Today, we’re going to spice things up a bit and do some hypothetical role play. 🌶

Let’s say our dear friend, Nate, was about to launch an online store and asked us for our most valuable tips for social media marketing.

The first thing you’d probably ask would be “What kind of stuff will you be selling?”

To which Nate would tell us that he’d be selling sporting gear and equipment.

… I know what you’re thinking: Vanessa? Sports? 😂 #LolWot

It’s not really my style, but social media marketing is.

So what could our most valuable tips for Nate be?

  1. Keep your product at the centre of all that you do
  2. Get to know your brand, inside and out
  3. Select the right channel(s) and use it the right way

Keep on reading if you’d like to know what exactly these mean. 🤓

Tip #1: Keep your product at the centre of all that you do

It’s important for Nate to know that his product(s) need to lie at the centre of everything that he does – from the quality of the product to understanding consumer needs to advertising (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

Think cricket bats, basketballs, hiking boots, mouthguards – you name it.

… which actually makes me think that bundling may be a good option for Nate to offer his consumers, don’t you think?

In case you’re not sure what bundling is, it combines numerous products or services which you can offer to your consumers (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

It’s typically seen amongst information-based services like newspapers and magazines (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019), but it could be a good idea for Nate to develop bundles to appeal to specific sports which in turns provides his customers the chance to save a bit of money (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

For example, Nate could offer a tennis bundle (Image 1) that includes a tennis racket, tennis balls and a racket bag (Tennis Australia, 2019) at a lower price in comparison to buying these products separately. 🎾

Image 1: Tennis bundle (Unsplash, 2019)

Tip #2: Get to know your brand, inside and out

Technically, branding is a product variable within the traditional marketing mix (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019), but we’re not a traditional generation, are we? 😉 #Millennial

Branding has always been extremely important as it is what differentiates you from your competitors within your industry (Sinha, 2018; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). It’s more than just your name and logo, it also includes your choices that you make as a business (Singha, 2918).

For Nate to be able to develop a brand, he should be able to identify his brand equity which are the elements that add value to your business (Sinha, 2018; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). They make you shiny, if you will. ⭐️

These elements include the brand:

  • Domain;
  • Heritage;
  • Values;
  • Assets;
  • Personality; and
  • Reflection (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

The brand domain refers to the key target markets and the industry in which the company competes in (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). For Nate, this market would include the sporting industry, athletes of all levels and individuals relevant to sport (e.g. coaches, managers, etc.). ⚽️

Brand heritage is all about the business’s history and culture (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). We could ask questions like:

  • What got you involved in this type of business?
  • Why did you want to launch an online store for sporting gear and equipment?
  • What’s your mission?
  • What do you see in your company’s future?

The values of the brand are crucial, as these are the characteristics which help shape a brand (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). This is all the nitty-gritty aspects of a product, so Nate should know what kind of pricing he’d like to ask for, the quality of his products and how well they perform (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Who’s going to want to spend $170 on a tennis racket (Rebel Sport, 2019) if it only lasts two weeks? Surely any racket that costs that much will last ages. 🙄

When we’re talkin’ brand assets, we’re talkin’ names, colours, logos, symbols, images (Sinha, 2018; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019) – the entire lot! It’s important for Nate to think about what his consumers will see, and how they will interpret this as a brand.

My personal favourite: brand personality. If you recall the blog post I wrote last week on Frank Body, the founders developed a persona that their target audience could connect with (Hum, 2018), and that’s just one successful example.

Nate doesn’t necessarily need to create a personality to reach his target market, but he should be able to identify certain characteristics that best define his company (Sinha, 2018; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Perhaps we should get him to think of some buzz words to help him out? 🤔

Brand reflection is how a customer sees themselves after purchasing from a business (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). I personally believe that all of these elements lead up to this reflection, as you’d want your customer to feel positive about choosing to purchase from you.

Tip #3: Select the right channel(s) and use it the right way

It’s a no brainer that Nate would need to get a website set up but in terms of social media, I think the scary thing is that there are so many platforms out there and you’ve gotta be smart about which one you put your business on. #Yikes

It’s important for Nate to know where most of his intended audience spends their time; that way, he can tap into a market that is likely to appeal to his product offering (Ogweng, 2018). For example, if he’s going to be Canberra-based, then he should recognise that creating a Twitter account wouldn’t be ideal for a city that aren’t heavy users of the platform. 🤷🏻‍♀️

Understanding how to use social media is crucial for Nate. Instagram has a cool feature now where users can actually shop as they’re scrolling through their feed or going through Stories – see Image 2 (Instagram, 2019).

Image 2: Shopping feature on Instagram (Instagram, 2019)

If a potential customer was on Nate’s Instagram and saw a pair of footy boots that they really wanted, they could tap on the product tag or product sticker that would lead to his website to make a purchase (Instagram, 2019). And ultimately, increase website traffic. 👏 #DoubleWhammy

We could help Nate out with the content that he posts online by developing a set of content pillars to help guide him through content creation (Coates & Iannelli, 2019). Content pillars are the broad themes which will ensure that whatever he posts for his business, actually aligns with his brand and is the foundation of his strategy (Barnhart, 2018; Coates & Iannelli, 2019).

To be honest, there are so many tactics out there that could help Nate out, but I really do think these three tips are important to get right before going full steam ahead.

It’s all about planning, and planning again (Image 3). 💥 #TrialAndError

Image 3: Planning content is an important aspect of your social media strategy (Unsplash, 2019)

Now, that’s a wrap on my blog posts for Digital Marketing!

For those who have been with me since day one, I’d like to thank you for taking the time out of your day to read what I have to say. Hopefully I can continue this site as a way for me to share my learning and professional journey.

VP. ✨

References

Chaffey, D. & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice. United Kingdom: Pearson.

Coates, E. & Iannelli, R. (2019). Social School. Canberra: Ivy Social & Good Day PR.

Hum, S. (2018). How Frank Body Used Word-of-Mouth and $5,000 to Become a Multi-Million Dollar Skincare Brand [Web log post]. Retrieved from: https://www.referralcandy.com/blog/frank-body-word-of-mouth/

Instagram. (2019). About Shopping on Instagram [Website]. Retrieved from Instagram: https://help.instagram.com/191462054687226

Ogweng, S. (2018, December 27). The Ultimate Guide To Choosing The Best Social Media Channels For Your Business [Web log post]. Retrieved from Sked Social: https://skedsocial.com/blog/social-media-channels-for-your-business/

Rebel Sport. (2019). Head IG Challenge MP Tennis Racquet [Website]. Retrieved from Rebel Sport: https://www.rebelsport.com.au/p/head-ig-challenge-mp-tennis-racquet-M58105401.html?dwvar_M58105401_color=Black&cgid=REB012001#start=1

Sinha, A. (2018, May 14). Six Reasons Branding Is More Important Than Ever Before [Web log post]. Retrieved from Entrepreneur India: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/313369

Tennis Australia. (2019). What equipment do I need to play tennis? [Website]. Retrieved from Tennis Australia: https://www.tennis.com.au/play/equipment/what-equipment-do-i-need-to-play-tennis

The TV industry shake-up

My boyfriend moved into his new house over the weekend which meant no internet.

Guys… I kid you not.

I watched the kitchen channel. All day. 😂

It didn’t take me long to realise how much I watch Netflix and Stan. Yes, I have both. Are we even surprised?

This got me thinking: television certainly isn’t dead, but the way it is used is constantly changing. Think of it like the publishing industry – we’ve been experiencing this shift towards eBooks and audible books, but we’re still seeing printed books on the shelves!

In today’s blog post, we’re going to talk about how the digital world disrupted the TV industry by applying the marketing mix. 📺

So, how do you watch TV? Do you still watch free-to-air? Does anyone?

The television network was the leading entertainment channel (Lie, 2015), but now nearly 14 million Australian households have subscriptions to some sort of online streaming service (Roy Morgan, 2019). We’re talkin’ about Netflix, Foxtel, Stan, YouTube Premium – you name it (Roy Morgan, 2019).

For those of you who aren’t aware of the marketing mix, I’m gonna keep this real simple for you.

It’s a traditional model that was developed by Jerome McCarthy (1960; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019) with the intention to sell products. It’s often referred to as the 4Ps, which consists of:

  1. Product;
  2. Price;
  3. Place; and
  4. Promotion (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

Over time, this extended to the 7Ps to incorporate the services sector (Booms & Bitner, 1981; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). The three additional Ps are:

  • People;
  • Process; and
  • Physical evidence (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

For this particular blog post, I’ll just go into the traditional marketing mix but you can see how all 7Ps can be applied to the use of the internet in Image 1.

Image 1: The 7Ps applied to the internet (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019)

Product

First up: product.

This is all about the elements (i.e. quality, branding, features) which makes a product, a product (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

So you’ve got a core product and an augmented product (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

The core product is the actual product that you’re buying, and the augmented product are like the extras for the core product (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Think of a television as the core product, then your remote, batteries and warranty as the augmented products.

Hold up… I actually just had a thought. 💡

As if online streaming can’t be both types of a product???

Take Foxtel, for example. Foxtel is the core product in that it provides on-demand content, but you can’t actually watch a Foxtel program without buying a TV (… or can you?). 🤔

And Netflix is the core product because it’s the online streaming platform, but you can’t actually watch it without a computer or mobile phone. 😲

Mind. Blown.

The beauty of services like Netflix and Stan is mass customisation. This is a combination of flexibility and personalisation (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019), and I’ll show you how this works (AKA let you into my Stan account… how intimate).

As you can see in Image 2, there is a section under the heading of “Because you watched Veronica Mars (2019)” (no judgement but I actually watched it from start to finish when the new season came out 😂). Stan shows me this because it knows that I watched Veronica Mars and it’s letting me see TV shows or films that are similar to it, so there’s a possibility that I may watch it and like it.

Image 2: Mass customisation on Stan (Stan, 2019)

Not only that, but you’re also able to personalise a playlist which is an option at the top of Image 2, under the “My List” tab (Stan, 2019). This provides you with the opportunity to use this features as a “watch later” or favourites playlist that’s completely designed just for you (Montpetit, 2014).


Price

Pricing within the marketing mix refers to an organisation’s pricing policies which can help differentiate a brand from another (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). There are numerous pricing options on the internet from payment per use to a fixed cost to bundles with other products (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

Let’s compare the standard monthly plans for Stan and Netflix. 💰

Stan offers $14 per month for the Stan Standard (Image 3), which allows you to watch in HD quality, stream on three screens at the same time and download content on three phones or tablets (Stan, 2019).

Image 3: Stan’s monthly pricing for Stan Standard (Stan, 2019)

But if we take a look at Image 4, Netflix offers the same price of $14 per month with the same quality, but only two screens and two phones or tablets for content downloads (Netflix Australia, 2019). So, although my boyfriend and I split the streaming platforms – he pays for Netflix, I pay for Stan – Netflix does the job just fine but I can still add a third person to my account without needing to pay extra. 🤷🏻‍♀️ #iwin

Image 4: Netflix’s monthly pricing for Standard (Netflix Australia, 2019)

Place

Where can your customers access your product?

Do they need the internet?

Can they stream from anywhere?

Is it easy to navigate through your platform?

These are the sorts of questions to ask when talking about place in the marketing mix. ✔️

Place refers to the distribution of your product, and how you’re getting it to your customers (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

The television industry has experienced such a paradigm shift in viewership as you used to be only able to watch TV in your lounge room or your bedroom, but now you can quite literally watch your fave show anywhere at any time given that you have a mobile phone (which we all do).

Even though all of these streaming services are technically online, you can download particular television episodes or movies to your mobile or tablet device, and watch it offline (Netflix, 2019; Stan, 2019) – this is something I actually do on flights. ✈️


Promotion

The fourth P of the marketing mix is promotion, and this is about how you communicate your product to your customers and stakeholders (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).

The internet has allowed us to openly communicate with brands effectively on social media in particular (Okoye, 2017; Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Take Netflix and its hit rom-com film, The Kissing Booth (2019)When announcing the sequel, Netflix posted a video on their Instagram account (Image 5) which generated just under 3.8 million views and approximately 25,000 comments (Netflix Australia, 2019).

Image 5: Netflix’s announcement for The Kissing Booth 2 on Instagram (Netflix Australia, 2019)

By posting on social media, Netflix was able to connect to Instagram followers surrounding the topic of The Kissing Booth and its sequel in real-time (Okoye, 2017). This allows fans to discuss television series or films with other fans or the account itself (Montpetit, 2014; Okoye, 2017), i.e. Netflix and the hashtag #TheKissingBooth. 💋


To wrap up, let’s quickly summarise how the television industry was shaken up with the emergence of online streaming platforms by applying the traditional marketing mix:

  • Product – online streaming services such as Netflix, Foxtel and Stan can be considered both a core and an augmented product, depending on how you look at it
  • Price – most commonly a fixed monthly fee paid on the platform’s website
  • Place – mostly online but also available offline for downloads
  • Promotion – commentary has moved over to social media

I hope you haven’t judged my viewing choices too hard, but it is what it is. 😂

VP. ✨


References

Booms, B. & Bitner, M. (1981). Marketing strategies and organisation structures for services firms. In J. Donnelly & W. George (Eds), Marketing of Services. New York: American Marketing Association.

Chaffey, D. & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice. United Kingdom: Pearson.

Lie, K. (2015, October 9). Internet Streaming and its Impact on the TV Industry [Web log post]. Retrieved from Money Marks & Media: http://j469.ascjclass.org/2015/10/09/1365/

McCarthy, J. (1960). Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin.

Montpetit, M. (2014). The internet is changing the definition of television [Website]. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/media-network/media-network-blog/2014/jun/10/internet-changing-definition-television

Netflix Australia. (2019). Netflix Australia – watch TV shows online, watch movies online [Website]. Retrieved from Netflix: http://www.netflix.com.au

Okoye, J. (2017). 7 Ways Technology Has Changed Television [Web log post]. Retrieved from Techopedia: https://www.techopedia.com/2/29509/technology-trends/7-ways-technology-has-changed-television

Roy Morgan. (2019). Netflix surges beyond 11 million users in Australia [Press release]. Retrieved from Roy Morgan: http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/7912-netflix-foxtel-stan-youtube-amazon-february-2019-201903180631

Stan. (2019). Stan – Watch TV Shows and Movies [Website]. Retrieved from: http://www.stan.com.au